GLP-1 ANALOGS


















  • Baseline average A1C ∼ 8.1%
  • Baseline average fasting blood sugar ∼ 167 mg/dl
  • Reference [14]
Albiglutide (Alb) monotherapy 52-week trial
Alb 30 mg weekly
(N=100)
Alb 50 mg weekly
(N=97)
HgA1C (%)
(difference from placebo)
-0.8% -1.0%
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(difference from placebo)
-34 -43

  • Albiglutide was dosed 30 mg weekly, and increased to 50 mg weekly if needed
  • Metformin was dosed at ≥ 1500 mg/day
  • Baseline average A1C ∼ 8.1%
  • Baseline average fasting blood sugar ∼ 165 mg/dl
  • Reference [14]
Albiglutide (Alb) added to metformin (Met) 104-week trial
Placebo + Met
(N=100)
Alb 30 - 50 mg weekly + Met
(N=297)
HgA1C (%)
(average change from baseline)
+0.3% -0.6%
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(average change from baseline)
+10 -18
  • Baseline average A1C - 7.6%
  • Baseline average fasting blood sugar ∼ 162 mg/dl
  • Most patients were being treated with metformin at randomization. Metformin was stopped followed by 2-week washout period.
  • Reference [16]
Dulaglutide (Dul) monotherapy 26-week trial
Dul 0.75 mg weekly
(N=270)
Dul 1.5 mg weekly
(N=269)
HgA1C (%)
(average change from baseline)
-0.7% -0.8%
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(average change from baseline)
-26 -29

  • Baseline average A1C ∼ 8.1%
  • Baseline average fasting blood sugar ∼ 173 mg/dl
  • Reference [16]
Dulaglutide (Dul) added to metformin (Met) 52-week trial
Dul 0.75 mg weekly + Met
(N=281)
Dul 1.5 mg weekly + Met
(N=279)
HgA1C (%)
(average change from baseline)
-0.9% -1.1%
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(average change from baseline)
-30 -41
  • Baseline average A1C ∼ 7.8%
  • Baseline average fasting blood sugar ∼ 162 mg/dl
  • Reference [1]
Exenatide (Exe) monotherapy 24-week trial
Exe 5 mcg twice daily
(N=77)
Exe 10 mcg twice daily
(N=78)
HgA1C (%)
(difference from placebo)
-0.5% -0.7%
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(difference from placebo)
-12 -14

  • Baseline average A1C ∼ 8.2%
  • Baseline average fasting blood sugar ∼ 172 mg/dl
  • Reference [1]
Exenatide (Exe) added to metformin (Met) 30-week trial
Exe 5 mcg twice daily + Met
(N=110)
Exe 10 mcg twice daily + Met
(N=113)
HgA1C (%)
(difference from placebo)
-0.5% -0.9%
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(difference from placebo)
-20 -24

  • Study was open-label
  • Most patients in the study were taking other diabetes medications
  • Baseline average A1C ∼ 8.4%
  • Baseline average fasting blood sugar ∼ 170 mg/dl
  • Reference [15]
Bydureon® vs Byetta® 24-week trial
Bydureon® 2 mg weekly
(N=129)
Byetta® 10 mcg twice daily
(N=123)
HgA1C (%)
(average change from baseline)
-1.6% -0.9%
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(average change from baseline)
-25 -5

  • Baseline average A1C - 8.2%
  • Baseline average fasting blood sugar ∼ 170 mg/dl
  • Reference [2]
Liraglutide (Lir) monotherapy 52-week trial
Lir 1.2 mg once daily
(N=251)
Lir 1.8 mg once daily
(N=246)
HgA1C (%)
(average change from baseline)
-0.8% -1.1%
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(average change from baseline)
-15 -26

  • Metformin dose was up to 2000 mg/day
  • Baseline average A1C ∼ 8.4%
  • Baseline average fasting blood sugar ∼ 180 mg/dl
  • Reference [2]
Liraglutide (Lir) added to metformin (Met) 26-week trial
Lir 1.2 mg once daily + Met
(N=240)
Lir 1.8 mg once daily + Met
(N=242)
HgA1C (%)
(difference from placebo)
-1.1% -1.1%
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(difference from placebo)
-37 -38

  • Baseline average A1C - 8.1%
  • Baseline average fasting blood sugar ∼ 176 mg/dl
  • Reference [22]
Semaglutide (Sem) monotherapy 30-week trial
Sem 0.5 mg once weekly
(N=128)
Sem 1.0 mg once weekly
(N=130)
HgA1C (%)
(difference from placebo)
-1.2% -1.4%
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(average change from baseline)
-41 -44

  • Baseline average A1C - 8.07%
  • Baseline average fasting blood sugar ∼ 161 mg/dl
  • Reference [21]
Lixisenatide (Lix) monotherapy 12-week trial
Lix 20 mcg once daily
(N=119)
Placebo once daily
(N=122)
HgA1C (%)
(average change from baseline)
-0.83% -0.18%
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(average change from baseline)
-16 +1.5

  • Average metformin dose was 1955 mg/day
  • Baseline average A1C ∼ 8.0%
  • Baseline average fasting blood sugar ∼ 171 mg/dl
  • Reference [21]
Lixisenatide (Lix) added to metformin (Met) 24-week trial
Placebo + Met
(N=162)
Lix 20 mcg once daily + Met
(N=161)
HgA1C (%)
(average change from baseline)
-0.26% -0.72%
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(average change from baseline)
-7 -17

  • Study was open-label
  • Most patients in the study were taking other diabetes medications
  • Baseline average A1C ∼ 8.4%
  • Baseline average fasting blood sugar ∼ 170 mg/dl
  • Reference [15]
Bydureon® vs Byetta® 24-week trial
Bydureon 2 mg weekly
(N=129)
Byetta 10 mcg twice daily
(N=123)
HgA1C (%)
(average change from baseline)
-1.6% -0.9%
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(average change from baseline)
-25 -5

  • Study was open-label
  • Most patients in the study were taking other diabetes medications
  • Baseline average A1C ∼ 8.2%
  • Reference [5]
Liraglutide (Lir) vs Byetta® 26-week trial
Lir 1.8 mg once daily
(N=233)
Byetta 10 mcg twice daily
(N=231)
HgA1C (%)
(average change from baseline)
-1.12% -0.79%
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(average change from baseline)
-29 -11
Weight change (lbs)
(average change from baseline)
-7 -6.3

  • *p=0.0175 for difference
  • Average metformin dose was 2039 mg/day
  • Baseline average A1C ∼ 8.0%
  • Baseline average fasting blood sugar ∼ 174 mg/dl
  • Reference [21]
Lixisenatide (Lix) vs Byetta® in patients taking metformin 24-week trial
Lix 20 mcg once daily
(N=318)
Byetta 10 mg twice daily
(N=316)
HgA1C (%)
(average change from baseline)
-0.73% -0.90%*
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(average change from baseline)
-20 -24

  • Difference in A1C change was statistically significant (diff 0.5, 95%CI [0.7 to 0.3])
  • Baseline average A1C - 8.3%
  • Baseline average fasting blood sugar ∼ 190 mg/dl
  • Reference [22]
Semaglutide (Sem) vs Bydureon (Byd) 56-week trial
Sem 1.0 mg once weekly
(N=404)
Byd 2.0 mg once weekly
(N=405)
HgA1C (%)
(change from baseline)
-1.4% -0.9%
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)
(average change from baseline)
-44 -34

  • Semaglutide was significantly better for all outcomes
  • Reference [23]
Semaglutide (Sem) vs Dulaglutide (Dul) 40-week trial
Sem 0.5 mg once weekly (N=301)
Sem 1.0 mg once weekly (N=300)
Dul 0.75 mg once weekly (N=299)
Dul 1.5 mg once weekly (N=299)
HgA1C (%)
(change from baseline)
-1.5%
-1.8%
-1.1%
-1.4%
Body weight (kg)
(change from baseline)
-4.6 kg
-6.5 kg
-2.3 kg
-3.0 kg
  • Baseline body weight - 204 pounds
  • Most patients were being treated with metformin at randomization. Metformin was stopped followed by 2-week washout period.
  • Reference [16]
Dulaglutide (Dul) monotherapy 26-week trial
Dul 0.75 mg weekly
(N=270)
Dul 1.5 mg weekly
(N=269)
Average change in weight (lbs) -5 -5

  • Baseline weight ∼ 188 pounds
  • Reference [1]
Exenatide (Exe) monotherapy 24-week trial
Exe 5 mcg twice daily
(N=77)
Exe 10 mcg twice daily
(N=78)
Average change in weight (lbs)
(difference from placebo)
-2.9 -3.3

  • Study was open-label
  • Most patients in the study were taking other diabetes medications
  • Baseline weight ∼ 210 pounds
  • Reference [15]
Bydureon® vs Byetta® 24-week trial
Bydureon® 2 mg weekly
(N=129)
Byetta® 10 mcg twice daily
(N=123)
Average change in weight (lbs) -5 -3
  • Baseline weight ∼ 204 pounds
  • Reference [2]
Liraglutide (Lir) monotherapy 52-week trial
Lir 1.2 mg once daily
(N=251)
Lir 1.8 mg once daily
(N=246)
Average change in weight (lbs) -4.6 -5.5
  • Difference significantly better than placebo for both doses
  • Baseline weight ∼ 205 pounds
  • Reference [22]
Semaglutide (Sem) monotherapy 30-week trial
Sem 0.5 mg once weekly
(N=128)
Sem 1.0 mg once weekly
(N=130)
Average weight change (lbs)
(difference from placebo)
-5.7 -7.7





Reference [1,2,3,5,16,21,22]
Gastrointestinal side effect Frequency
(% of patients)
Nausea 12 - 40%
Diarrhea 8 - 15%
Vomiting 5 - 15%
Abdominal pain up to 8%