MEDICAL TERMS AND VALUES







Reference [7]
Category Urine ACR
(mcg of albumin/mg of creatinine)
Normal < 30
Microalbuminuria 30 - 299
Macroalbuminuria ≥ 300




  • Reference [23]
CRP normal value (mg/L)
0 - 4.9





Formulas for calculating GFR and CrCl
MDRD formula

  • GFR (ml/min/1.73m2) = 186 X (SCr)-1.154 X (Age)-0.203 X (0.742 only if female) X (1.210 only if black)
    • where SCr = serum creatinine in mg/dl

Cockcroft-Gault Equation

  • cockcroft gault equation

CKD-EPI formula

  • GFR (ml/min) = 141 X min(Scr/k, 1)α X max(Scr/k, 1)-1.209 X (0.993)Age X 1.018 [if female] X 1.159 [if black]
    • where: k = 0.7 for females, 0.9 for males | α = -0.329 for females, -0.411 for males | Scr = serum creatinine in mg/dl
    • min(Scr/k, 1) means use whichever value is least between Scr/k or 1
    • max(Scr/k, 1) means use whichever value is greater between Scr/k or 1
    • Example: Scr = 0.9 and patient is female therefore: Scr/k = 0.9/0.7 = 1.28 | for min(Scr/k, 1) would use 1 | for max(Scr/k, 1) would use 1.28
    • Reference: PubMed ID 19414839


  • Category 1 if kidney damage is present
  • NKF - National Kidney Foundation
Stages of kidney disease
GFR (ml/min) Degree of kidney disease NKF stages
≥ 90 Normal 1
60 - 89 Mild 2
44 - 59 Moderate 3a
30 - 44 Moderate 3b
15 - 29 Severe 4
< 15 Kidney failure 5




  • Reference [23]
Normal ESR values by age and sex
Patient population ESR (mm/hr)
Male 0 - 50 years 0 - 15
Male ≥ 50 years 0 - 30
Female 0 - 50 years 0 - 32
Female ≥ 50 years 0 - 40






  • Reference [18]
Grade (Rankin score) Symptoms
0 No symptoms at all
1 No significant disability: despite symptoms, able to carry out all usual duties and activities
2 Slight disability: unable to perform all previous activities but able to look after own affairs without assistance
3 Moderate disability: requiring some help but able to walk without assistance
4 Moderately severe disability: unable to walk without assistance and unable to attend to own bodily needs without assistance
5 Severe disability: bedridden, incontinent and requiring constant nursing care and attention
6 Death



Serum creatinine (mg/dl) Range
≤ 1.2 Normal
1.3 - 1.5 Mild-to-moderate elevation
> 1.5 Significant elevation




Five bodily compartments for drug distribution
Compartment Estimated volume
(Based on body weight)
Intravascular fluid 0.08 L/kg
Extracellular fluid 0.20 L/kg
Intracellular fluid 0.40 L/kg
Whole body fluid
(extracellular + intracellular)
0.60 L/kg (men and children)
0.50 L/kg (women and elderly men)
0.45 L/kg (elderly women)
Body fat 0.2 - 0.35 L/kg


  • Reference: Pharmaceutical Calculations, 9th ed. Stoklosa, Ansel (1991)
Vd and drug distribution
Vd (Liters) Distribution
< 10 Intravascular
  • Drugs that are large molecules
  • Drugs that are highly protein-bound (e.g. warfarin)
10 - 20 Extracellular fluid
  • Drugs with low lipid solubility that cannot cross cell membranes
25 - 30 Intracellular fluid
  • Drugs that can cross cell membranes
  • Drugs that are actively transported across cell membranes
40 Whole body fluid
  • Drugs that pass freely across cell membranes (e.g. alcohol, caffeine)
> 40 Fat tissue
  • Lipophilic drugs that accumulate in fat (e.g. chloroquine, amiodarone)