PEDIATRIC INFECTIONS









  • C = cough, CN = Congestion, HA = Headache, LAD = lymphadenopathy, ST = Sore throat, LG = low-grade, HG = High-grade
COMMON INFECTIONS WITHOUT RASH
Disease Age URI symptoms GI symptoms Other
RSV 0 - 2 years
  • C/CN/LG fever
  • Wheeze
  • Decreased feeding
  • Peak season: November - April
  • Peak age: 3 - 6 months
Adenovirus 0 - 5 years
  • C/CN/ST/Fever
  • Conjunctivitis
  • N/V/D may be present
  • Peak season: winter and spring
Otitis media 0 - 6 years
  • Ear pain
  • Fever
  • C/CN if URI present
  • Decreased appetite
  • N/V/D in some
  • Peak age: 6 - 18 months
Croup 6 mon - 3 years
  • Barking, seal-like cough
  • LG fever
  • Congestion
  • Uncommon
  • Peak season: Sept - Dec
  • Parainfluenza virus (75% of cases)
Rhinovirus / Coronavirus All ages
  • C/CN/ST/LG fever
  • Uncommon
  • Common cold
  • Circulate year-round
Urinary tract infection All ages
  • Fever if in kidneys
  • N/V in pyelonephritis
  • 2% of males | 8% of females
  • 2 months - 2 years need imaging
COVID-19 All ages
  • C/CN/HA/Fever
  • Body aches
  • N/V/D
  • Up to 50% are asymptomatic
Influenza All ages
  • C/CN/ST/HG fever
  • Body aches
  • Conjunctivitis
  • N/V/D, especially in young children
  • Peak season: December - March
  • Flu vaccine starting at 6 months
  • May cause bronchiolitis and croup
Strep throat 5 - 15 years
  • ST/HA/HG fever
  • Cervical LAD
  • N/V in some
  • Peak season: winter and spring
Mononucleosis 12 - 24 years
  • ST with exudate
  • Cervical LAD
  • HG fever
  • Uncommon
  • Occurs year round
  • Primarily caused by EBV
  • Splenomegaly

  • CN = Congestion, ST = Sore throat, LG = low-grade, HG = High-grade
COMMON INFECTIONS WITH RASH
Disease Age Rash Other symptoms Other
Roseola infantum 0 - 2 years
  • Diffuse pink papules after fever resolves
  • HG fever for 3 - 5 days
  • Peak seasons: spring and fall
  • Peak age: 6 and 12 months
  • Ubiquitous infection
Hand, foot, and mouth disease 0 - 5 years
  • Mouth sores
  • Rash on hands and feet
  • LG fever/malaise
  • Decreased appetite
  • Peak season: summer and fall
  • Characteristic rash
Herpetic gingivostomatitis 6 mon - 5 years
  • Mouth and lip ulcers
  • High-grade fever
  • Decreased intake secondary to mouth pain
  • Primary HSV-1 infection
  • Ubiquitous infection
  • 33% will develop recurrent fever blisters
Molluscum contagiosum 2 - 5 years
  • Scattered umbilicated papules
  • None
  • Lesions resolve within 2 months
  • Does not cause systemic symptoms
Impetigo 2 - 5 years
  • Golden-crusted erosions
  • May also be bullous
  • None
  • Antibiotics speed resolution
  • Highly contagious
Varicella
(Chickenpox)
4 - 10 years
  • Diffuse macules to papules to vesicles
  • Uncommon in vaccinated
  • Peak season: winter and spring
  • Vaccine prevents 70 - 90% of infections
Erythema infectiosum
(Fifth disease)
5 - 15 years
  • "Slapped cheek" followed by diffuse maculopapular rash
  • ST - 15%
  • CN - 10%
  • Fever - 20%
  • Peak season: winter and spring
  • Noncontagious once rash appears
Pityriasis rosea 10 - 35 years
  • Herald patch followed by scattered ovals
  • Prodromal fever in some
  • Rash lasts average of 45 days
  • No clear seasonal variation
Scabies All ages
  • Itchy red papules with wavy lines. Prefers fingers, toes, elbows, axilla, and groin.
  • None
  • Mostly passed through direct contact

  • C = cough, CN = Congestion, HA = Headache, ST = Sore throat, LAD = lymphadenopathy, LG = low-grade, HG = High-grade
UNVACCINATED CHILDREN
Disease Age Symptoms Other
Rotavirus 0 - 5 years
  • Vomiting and watery diarrhea
  • LG fever
  • Peak season: winter and spring
  • RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccines
Measles (Rubeola) All ages
  • C/CN/HG fever/Conjunctivitis
  • Koplik spots
  • Diffuse maculopapular rash 2 - 4 days after fever
  • Treated with vitamin A
  • Preventable with MMR vaccine
Diphtheria All ages
  • ST/LAD/HA/LG fever
  • Pseudomembrane
  • Treated with antitoxin and antibiotics
  • High mortality if untreated
  • Preventable with DTaP and TdaP vaccines
Pertussis
(Whooping cough)
All ages
  • C/CN/LG fever initially
  • Fits of coughing with whooping sound
  • Cough can last for months
  • Treated with antibiotics
  • Preventable with DTaP and TdaP vaccines
Varicella
(Chickenpox)
4 - 10 years
  • Malaise/LG fever
  • Rash: diffuse macules to papules to vesicles
  • Peak season: winter and spring
  • Vaccine prevents 70 - 90% of infections
Rubella 5 - 9 years
  • ST/LAD/LG fever
  • Diffuse maculopapular rash 2 - 5 days after fever
  • Very rare in vaccinated populations
  • Can cause congenital rubella syndrome
  • Preventable with MMR vaccine
Mumps 5 - 14 years
  • Parotid swelling
  • LG fever
  • Postpubertal males may have orchitis
  • Preventable with MMR vaccine